A new Kentucky reference cigarette, 1R6F, has been manufactured to replace the depleting 3R4F reference cigarette. The 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes have been widely used as monitor or comparator cigarettes for mainstream smoke analysis and in vitro and in vivo toxicological data of cigarettes and novel tobacco products. Both reference cigarettes were analyzed in the same laboratory during the same period of time with the goal of performing a comparison of 3R4F and 1R6F. On the basis of the results obtained from aerosol chemistry and in vitro assays, we consider that the 1R6F reference cigarette is a suitable replacement for the 3R4F reference cigarette as a comparator/monitor cigarette. Its specific use as a comparator for novel tobacco products was checked on the basis of a comparative test with the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 as an example.