Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a group of progressive disorders characterized by recurrent chronic inflammation of the gut. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the major manifestations of IBD. While our understanding of IBD has progressed in recent years, its etiology is far from being fully understood, resulting in suboptimal treatment options. Complementing other biological endpoints, bioanalytical "omics" methods that quantify many biomolecules simultaneously have great potential in the dissection of the complex pathogenesis of IBD. In this review, we focus on the rapidly evolving proteomics and lipidomics technologies and their broad applicability to IBD studies; these range from investigations of immune-regulatory mechanisms and biomarker discovery to studies dissecting host(-)microbiome interactions and the role of intestinal epithelial cells. Future studies can leverage recent advances, including improved analytical methodologies, additional relevant sample types, and integrative multi-omics analyses. Proteomics and lipidomics could effectively accelerate the development of novel targeted treatments and the discovery of complementary biomarkers, enabling continuous monitoring of the treatment response of individual patients; this may allow further refinement of treatment and, ultimately, facilitate a personalized medicine approach to IBD.