In 2012, the U.S. FDA published a list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) found in tobacco products and smoke, known as the FDA 93 list as it comprises 93 compounds or classes of compounds. This list covers toxicants linked to diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, among others. Below, we’ve listed the levels of those HPHCs (with the exception of nicotine) measured in the smoke of a standard reference cigarette (3R4F) and aerosols of two versions of our Tobacco Heating System (THS 2.2).

In all cases where a comparison could be made we found that HPHC levels in the THS were lower compared to 3R4F, with an average reduction of >90.5% for THS 2.2 Regular and >91.0% for THS 2.2 Smooth Menthol.

All analyses were conducted by Labstat International ULC (Kitchener, ON, Canada) according to their own methods and protocols. The standard Health Canada intense smoking regime was applied to both the 3R4F and the THS.

 

Levels of HPHCs, as well as standard deviation, for the THS regular and menthol, compared to 3R4F. Number of replicates = 3.

Tilt your device

HPHCs

Unit

3R4F

THS 2.2 Regular

THS 2.2 Smooth Menthol

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

% of reduction to 3R4F

Mean

SD

% of reduction to 3R4F

Ammonia

[µg/stk]

31.7

1.13

13.14

0.846

58.6%

13.38

0.780

57.9%

Carbonyls

Formaldehyde

[µg/stk]

70.2

6.17

7.10

0.607

89.9%

7.68

1.234

89.1%

Acetaldehyde

[µg/stk]

1713

123

197.2

15.6

88.5%

199.4

13.5

88.4%

Acetone

[µg/stk]

697

47.8

31.5

4.92

95.5%

32.5

3.02

95.3%

Acrolein

[µg/stk]

177

15.5

9.20

0.865

94.8%

9.36

0.946

94.7%

Propionaldehyde

[µg/stk]

125

8.97

12.2

1.16

90.2%

12.4

0.93

90.0%

Crotonaldehyde

[µg/stk]

55.2

4.40

<3.29
 (LOQ)

*

>94.0%

<3.29
 (LOQ)

*

>94.0%

Methyl Ethyl Ketone

[µg/stk]

184

14.0

7.08

0.656

96.2%

7.10

0.710

96.1%

HCN

[µg/stk]

433

5.50

2.06

0.040

99.5%

2.17

0.200

99.5%

Metals

Mercury

[ng/stk]

4.36

0.360

2.11

0.071

51.6%

1.88

0.190

56.8%

Cadmium

[ng/stk]

99.4

4.84

<0.09
 (LOD)

*

>99.9%

<0.28
 (LOQ)

*

>99.7%

Lead

[ng/stk]

<25.7
 (LOQ)

*

<1.62
 (LOQ)

*

NA

<0.490
 (LOD)

*

NA

Chromium

[ng/stk]

<11.9
 (LOD)

*

<11.0
 (LOQ)

*

NA

<11.0
 (LOQ)

*

NA

Nickel

[ng/stk]

<43.1
 (LOQ)

*

<15.9
 (LOD)

*

NA

<15.9
 (LOD)

*

NA

Arsenic

[ng/stk]

8.23

0.180

<1.20
 (LOQ)

*

>85.4%

<1.20
 (LOQ)

*

>85.4%

Selenium

[ng/stk]

<4.42
 (LOD)

*

<0.830
 (LOQ)

*

NA

<0.830
 (LOQ)

*

NA

Cobalt

[ng/stk]

<3.69
 (LOD)

*

<3.69
 (LOD)

*

NA

<3.69
 (LOD)

*

NA

Beryllium

[pg/stk]

<11.9
 (LOQ)

*

<11.9
 (LOQ)

*

NA

<11.9
 (LOQ)

*

NA

Semi-volatiles

Quinoline

[µg/stk]

0.409

0.019

<0.011
 (LOQ)

*

>97.3%

<0.011
 (LOQ)

*

>97.3%

Styrene

[µg/stk]

13.0

1.53

0.328

0.036

97.5%

0.336

0.013

97.4%

Nitrobenzene

[µg/stk]

<0.038
 (LOD)

*

<0.011
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.011
 (LOD)

*

NA

Benzo(b)furan

[µg/stk]

0.592

0.0243

0.027

0.003

95.4%

0.030

0.004

95.0%

Acetamide

[µg/stk]

12.3

0.354

3.28

0.116

73.3%

3.21

0.067

73.9%

Acrylamide

[µg/stk]

4.33

0.262

1.64

0.084

62.1%

1.80

0.041

58.5%

Phenolics

Catechol

[µg/stk]

98.1

7.34

12.9

0.941

86.8%

12.7

0.949

87.1%

Phenol

[µg/stk]

14.4

0.777

0.941

0.134

93.5%

0.812

0.088

94.4%

p-cresol

[µg/stk]

6.56

0.679

<0.034
 (LOQ)

*

>99.5%

0.040

0.003

99.4%

m-cresol

[µg/stk]

3.34

0.448

0.033

0.004

99.0%

0.030

0.006

99.1%

o-cresol

[µg/stk]

3.76

0.144

0.041

0.007

98.9%

0.042

0.009

98.9%

CO

[mg/stk]

30.6

1.83

<0.067
 (LOD)

*

>99.8%

<0.067
 (LOD)

*

>99.8%

PAHs

Naphthalene

[ng/stk]

1197

83.1

7.34

1.18

99.4%

5.94

0.90

99.5%

Benzo[a]anthracene

[ng/stk]

32

2.3

2.75

0.35

91.3%

2.01

0.24

93.6%

Chrysene

[ng/stk]

41

2.8

3.9

0.40

90.5%

2.9

0.32

92.8%

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

[ng/stk]

14

0.8

1.20

0.133

91.4%

0.84

0.127

94.0%

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

[ng/stk]

5

0.4

0.607

0.061

87.5%

<0.395
 (LOQ)

*

>91.9

Benzo[a]pyrene

[ng/stk]

16

0.9

1.1

0.17

92.8%

0.7

0.07

95.2%

Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

[ng/stk]

5

0.2

<0.337
 (LOQ)

*

>93.7

<0.337
 (LOQ)

*

>93.7

Dibenz[a,h]anthracene

[ng/stk]

1

0.10

<0.124
 (LOD)

*

>84.4

<0.124
 (LOD)

*

>84.4

Benzo[c]phenanthrene

[ng/stk]

8

2.295

1.3

0.132

83.8%

0.9

0.051

89.2%

Cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene

[ng/stk]

6.0

0.39

2.0

0.26

67.3%

1.1

0.15

81.3%

Benzo[j]aceanthrylene

[ng/stk]

1.1

0.21

<0.104
 (LOD)

*

>90.9

<0.104
 (LOD)

*

>90.9

5-methylchrysene

[ng/stk]

1.3

0.03

<0.094
 (LOQ)

*

>92.9

<0.094
 (LOQ)

*

>92.9

Dibenz[a,l]pyrene

[ng/stk]

<0.423
 (LOD)

*

<0.254
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.254
 (LOD)

*

NA

Dibenz[a,e]pyrene

[ng/stk]

<0.696
 (LOQ)

*

<0.125
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.125
 (LOD)

*

NA

Dibenz[a,i]pyrene

[ng/stk]

1.46

0.029

<0.132
 (LOD)

*

>91.0

<0.132
 (LOD)

*

>91.0

Dibenz[a,h]pyrene

[ng/stk]

<0.236
 (LOD)

*

<0.141
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.141
 (LOD)

*

NA

Alkaloids

Nornicotine

[µg/stk]

14.5

1.134

0.60

0.065

95.8%

0.52

0.012

96.4%

Anabasine

[µg/stk]

1.15

0.143

0.952

0.04

16.9%

1.005

0.10

12.3%

Volatiles

1,3-butadiene

[µg/stk]

93.0

5.55

0.230

0.009

99.8%

0.273

0.028

99.7%

Isoprene

[µg/stk]

812

11.8

1.33

0.077

99.8%

1.62

0.187

99.8%

Acrylonitrile

[µg/stk]

22.5

1.73

<0.107
 (LOQ)

*

>99.5%

0.112

0.0390

>99.5%

Benzene

[µg/stk]

83.1

3.02

0.483

0.023

99.4%

0.561

0.072

99.3%

Toluene

[µg/stk]

143

6.74

1.40

0.054

99.0%

1.65

0.227

98.8%

Ethylbenzene

[µg/stk]

14.8

0.638

0.132

0.001

99.1%

0.151

0.017

99.0%

Ethylene Oxide

[µg/stk]

21.2

2.11

0.198

0.021

99.1%

0.234

0.068

98.9%

Vinyl Chloride

[ng/stk]

128

8.10

<0.657
 (LOD)

*

>99.5%

<0.657
 (LOD)

*

>99.5%

Propylene Oxide

[ng/stk]

930

118

159

15.5

82.9%

158

25.1

83.0%

Furan

[µg/stk]

58.3

2.93

4.43

0.390

92.4%

4.49

0.437

92.3%

Vinyl Acetate

[ng/stk]

646

44.3

60.1

1.09

90.7%

66.4

5.69

89.7%

Nitromethane

[ng/stk]

809

85.6

51.2

3.43

93.7%

44.3

2.00

94.5%

2-nitropropane

[ng/stk]

36.5

6.69

8.40

0.553

77.0%

6.00

0.261

83.6%

Aromatic
 Amines

1-aminonaphthalene

[ng/stk]

18.4

0.423

<0.027
 (LOQ)

*

>99.9%

<0.027
 (LOQ)

*

>99.9%

2-aminonaphthalene

[ng/stk]

11.6

0.230

<0.012
 (LOQ)

*

>99.9%

<0.012
 (LOQ)

*

>99.9%

4-aminobiphenyl

[ng/stk]

2.81

0.238

0.008

0.0006

99.7%

0.010

0.0011

99.6%

2,6-dimethylaniline

[ng/stk]

8.01

0.417

0.316

0.019

96.1%

0.270

0.024

96.6%

o-anisidine

[ng/stk]

5.20

0.451

0.124

0.003

97.6%

0.131

0.010

97.5%

o-toluidine

[ng/stk]

105

7.39

1.08

0.050

99.0%

1.08

0.089

99.0%

TSNA

Nitrosonornicotine (NNN)

[ng/stk]

277

39.7

15.2

1.55

94.5%

9.5

1.62

96.6%

4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)

[ng/stk]

232

7.31

9.00

0.485

96.1%

6.92

0.902

97.0%

Caffeic Acid

[µg/stk]

<1.19
 (LOD)

*

<0.478
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.478
 (LOD)

*

NA

Ethyl Carbamate

[ng/stk]

<6.43
 (LOD)

*

<1.93
 (LOD)

*

NA

<1.93
 (LOD)

*

NA

Heterocyclic
 Aromatic Amines (Haas)

IQ

[ng/stk]

6.73

0.757

<0.64
 (LOD)

*

>90.5

<0.64
 (LOD)

*

>90.5

Glu-P-2

[ng/cg]

<0.301
 (LOD)

*

<0.120
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.120
 (LOD)

*

NA

Glu-P-1

[ng/stk]

<0.239
 (LOD)

*

<0.095
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.095
 (LOD)

*

NA

PhIP

[ng/stk]

<0.365
 (LOD)

*

<0.486
 (LOQ)

*

NA

<0.486
 (LOQ)

*

NA

Trp-P-2

[ng/stk]

6.37

0.751

<0.113
 (LOD)

*

>98.2%

<0.113
 (LOD)

*

>98.2%

AαC

[ng/stk]

206

4.82

1.49

0.244

99.3%

1.65

0.361

99.2%

Trp-P-1

[ng/stk]

5.20

0.872

<0.098
 (LOD)

*

>98.1%

<0.098
 (LOD)

*

>98.1%

MeAαC

[ng/stk]

26.6

0.872

<0.385
 (LOQ)

*

>98.6%

<0.115
 (LOD)

*

>99.6%

Hydrazine

[ng/stk]

<6.79
 (LOD)

*

<2.04
 (LOD)

*

NA

<2.04
 (LOD)

*

NA

Volatile Nitrosamines

NDMA

[ng/stk]

6.43

0.219

2.79

0.209

56.6%

3.38

0.088

47.5%

NEMA

[ng/stk]

<0.509
 (lOD)

*

<0.254
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.254
 (LOD)

*

NA

NDEA

[ng/stk]

<0.617
 (LOD)

*

<0.308
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.308
 (LOD)

*

NA

NPIP

[ng/stk]

<0.172
 (LOD)

*

<0.086
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.086
 (LOD)

*

NA

NPYR

[ng/stk]

36.8

6.41

<0.198
 (LOD)

*

>99.5%

<0.198
 (LOD)

*

>99.5%

NMOR

[ng/stk]

<0.550
 (LOD)

*

<0.275
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.275
 (LOD)

*

NA

NDELA

[ng/stk]

<0.085
 (LOD)

*

<0.042
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.042
 (LOD)

*

NA

Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans

2,3,7,8-Tetra CDD

[pg/stk]

<3.9
 (LOD)

*

<3.7
 (LOD)

*

NA

<3.8
 (LOD)

*

NA

1,2,3,7,8-Penta CDD

[pg/stk]

<4.0
 (LOD)

*

<3.5
 (LOD)

*

NA

<3.9
 (LOD)

*

NA

1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexa CDD

[pg/stk]

<3.7
 (LOD)

*

<3.7
 (LOD)

*

NA

<3.2
 (LOD)

*

NA

1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexa CDD

[pg/stk]

<3.7
 (LOD)

*

<3.8
 (LOD)

*

NA

<3.1
 (LOD)

*

NA

1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexa CDD

[pg/stk]

<3.3
 (LOD)

*

<3.4
 (LOD)

*

NA

<2.8
 (LOD)

*

NA

1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Hepta CDD

[pg/stk]

<3.5
 (LOD)

*

<3.4
 (LOD)

*

NA

<20
 (LOQ)

*

NA

Octa CDD

[pg/stk]

<200
 (LOQ)

*

<7.2
 (LOD)

*

NA

<200
 (LOQ)

*

NA

2,3,7,8-Tetra CDF

[pg/stk]

<3.8
 (LOD)

*

<2.9
 (LOD)

*

NA

<3.1
 (LOD)

*

NA

1,2,3,7,8-Penta CDF

[pg/stk]

<3.8
 (LOD)

*

<3.5
 (LOD)

*

NA

<3.3
 (LOD)

*

NA

2,3,4,7,8-Penta CDF

[pg/stk]

<4.0
 (LOD)

*

<3.5
 (LOD)

*

NA

<3.2
 (LOD)

*

NA

1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexa CDF

[pg/stk]

<2.2
 (LOD)

*

<2.4
 (LOD)

*

NA

<2.8
 (LOD)

*

NA

1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexa CDF

[pg/stk]

<2.1
 (LOD)

*

<2.3
 (LOD)

*

NA

<2.7
 (LOD)

*

NA

2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexa CDF

[pg/stk]

<2.4
 (LOD)

*

<2.6
 (LOD)

*

NA

<20
 (LOQ)

*

NA

1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexa CDF

[pg/stk]

<2.6
 (LOD)

*

<2.9
 (LOD)

*

NA

<20
 (LOQ)

*

NA

1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Hepta CDF

[pg/stk]

<2.5
 (LOD)

*

<2.7
 (LOD)

*

NA

<20
 (LOQ)

*

NA

1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Hepta CDF

[pg/stk]

<3.3
 (LOD)

*

<3.6
 (LOD

*

NA

<20
 (LOQ)

*

NA

Octa CDF

[pg/stk]

<4.4
 (LOD)

*

<5.4
 (LOD)

*

NA

<200
 (LOQ)

*

NA

Radio
 Nucleides

Polonium-210

[Bq/stk]

0.0062

0.0032

<0.005
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.005
 (LOD)

*

NA

Uranium-235

[Bq/stk]

<0.005
 (LOD)

*

<0.005
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.005
 (LOD)

*

NA

Uranium-238

[Bq/stk]

<0.005
 (LOD)

*

<0.005
 (LOD)

*

NA

<0.005
 (LOD)

*

NA

Abbreviations:

  • AαC: 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole
  • CDD: Chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
  • CDF: Chlorodibenzofuran
  • CO: Carbon monoxide
  • Glu-P-1: 2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a: 3',2'-d]imidazole
  • Glu-P-2: 2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a: 3',2'-d]imidazole; IQ: 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline
  • LOD: Limit of detection
  • LOQ: Limit of quantification
  • MeAαC: 2-Amino-3-methyl)-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole
  • NDEA: N-Nitrosodiethylamine
  • NDELA : N-Nitrosodiethanolamine
  • NDMA: N-Nitrosodimethylamine
  • NEMA: N-Nitrosomethylethylamine
  • NMOR: N-Nitrosomorpholine
  • NPIP: N-Nitrosopiperidine
  • NPYR: N-Nitrosopyrrolidine
  • PAHs: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • PhIP: 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine
  • Trp-P-1: 3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole
  • Trp-P-2: 1-Methyl-3-amino-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole
  • TSNA: Tobacco specific nitrosamines.

 

*: No standard deviation could be calculated.

NA: No % reduction could be calculated.

When the results for the THS were either below the LOQ or LOD, the value of the LOQ and LOD was used for the reduction calculation. When both the reference cigarette and THS levels were below the LOQ/LOD, no reduction could be calculated.