Peer-Reviewed Publications

      Use of capillary aerosol generator in continuous production of controlled aerosol for non-clinical studies

      Goedertier, D.; Schorderet Weber, S.; Lucci, F.; Lee, T.; Tan, W. T.; Radtke, F.; Krishnan, S.; Vanscheeuwijck, P.; Kuczaj, A. K.; Hoeng, J.

      Apr 12, 2022

      The capillary aerosol generator (CAG) is operated with the principal of thermal liquid evaporation through heating of e-liquid in the initial phase, followed by nucleation and condensation regulated through a mixture of airflow to generate aerosols, such as in an electronic cigarette (EC). The CAG is particularly useful in generating aerosols of large volumes in a continuous manner, for instances such as in vivo inhalation toxicology studies, where usage of ECs is not feasible. The thermal effects of generating aerosol from the CAG are similar in terms of temperature applied in an EC, thus allowing investigators to assess the vapors of e-liquids at scale and reproducibility. As the operation of the CAG allows users to control critical parameters such as the flow rate of e-liquid, heating temperatures and dilution air flows, it allows investigators to test various e-liquid formulations in a well-controlled device. Properties, such as aerosol particle size, are demonstrated to be regulated with the air flow rate with respect to the e-liquid flow and e-liquid composition. The CAG, however, is limited in assessing common EC-related issues, such as overheating of its elements. We seek to demonstrate that the CAG can generate aerosol that is reproducible and continuous, by assessing the chemical and physical aerosol characteristics with a chosen e-liquid formulation. The protocol describes the operating parameters of liquid flow rate, dilution air-flow rates and operating procedures needing to optimize the aerosol concentration and particle size required for an in vivo toxicology study. Presenting the representative results from the protocol and discussing the challenges and applications of working with a CAG, we demonstrate that CAG can be used in a reproducible fashion. The technology and protocol, that has been developed from prior work, serve as a foundation for future innovations for laboratory-controlled aerosol generation investigations.