Read the Scientific Update on our smoke-free products

Glossary

Last updated on: 30 March 2015

2

2R4F

2R4F was a standard reference cigarette, used throughout the tobacco industry and academic laboratories as a consistent and uniform test item for inhalation toxicology research. It was replaced by 3R4F in 2006.

3

3R4F

3R4F is a standard reference cigarette, used throughout the tobacco industry and academic laboratories as a consistent and uniform test item for inhalation toxicology research. It has been in use since 2006.

C

Candidate RRP

A candidate RRP is Synonymous with the term prototypic RRP. A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

Candidate RRPs

Candidate RRPs is Synonymous with the term prototypic RRPs. A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

Carboxyhaemoglobin

Carboxyhaemoglobin is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and haemoglobin that forms in red blood cells upon contact with carbon monoxide. Large quantities of carbon monoxide hinders the ability of haemoglobin to deliver oxygen to the body.

E

e-cigarette

e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that vaporise a nicotine-containing solution. Many public health experts recognise the risk reduction potential of e-cigarettes. It is also recognized that appropriate product standards and more scientific studies are required.

e-cigarettes

e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that vaporise a nicotine-containing solution. Many public health experts recognise the risk reduction potential of e-cigarettes. It is also recognized that appropriate product standards and more scientific studies are required.

EHCSS

Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System, was the predecessor device to the current platform 1

Endosome

An endosome is a small body within the cell in which binding molecules are separated from their receptors and from which the receptors are returned to the cell surface.

Endosomes

An endosome is a small body within the cell in which binding molecules are separated from their receptors and from which the receptors are returned to the cell surface.

Eosinophil

An eosinophil is a normal type of white blood cell that is involved in inflammation. Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow and migrate to tissues throughout the body.

Eosinophils

An eosinophil is a normal type of white blood cell that is involved in inflammation. Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow and migrate to tissues throughout the body.

G

Genomic

Genomics is the combination of DNA and RNA sequencing with bioinformatics to analyse the structure and function of the complete set of nucleic acid molecules within cells.

Genomics

Genomics is the combination of DNA and RNA sequencing with bioinformatics to analyse the structure and function of the complete set of nucleic acid molecules within cells.

Gross pathological

Gross pathology refers to relatively large manifestations of disease (ie, visible to the naked eye) in organs, tissues, and body cavities.

Gross pathology

Gross pathology refers to relatively large manifestations of disease (ie, visible to the naked eye) in organs, tissues, and body cavities.

H

Histopathological

Histopathology refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study structural changes, including those associated with manifestations of disease.

Histopathology

Histopathology refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study structural changes, including those associated with manifestations of disease.

L

Lymphocyte

A lymphocyte is a form of small white blood cell that is involved in inflammation and found especially in the lymphatic system.

Lymphocytes

A lymphocyte is a form of small white blood cell that is involved in inflammation and found especially in the lymphatic system.

Lysosome

A lysosome is a specialised subunit within a cell containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death.

Lysosomes

A lysosome is a specialised subunit within a cell containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death.

M

Macrophage

A macrophage is a large white blood cell that mediates inflammation. Macrophages ingest foreign particles and infectious microorganisms and occur principally in connective tissue and the bloodstream.

Macrophages

A macrophage is a large white blood cell that mediates inflammation. Macrophages ingest foreign particles and infectious microorganisms and occur principally in connective tissue and the bloodstream.

Modified-Risk Tobacco Product

‘Modified-risk tobacco product’ or ‘MRTP’ is the term formally used by the US Food and Drug Administration to describe an alternative to cigarettes that is associated with less risk of disease.

Modified-Risk Tobacco Products

‘Modified-risk tobacco product’ or ‘MRTP’ is the term formally used by the US Food and Drug Administration to describe an alternative to cigarettes that is associated with less risk of disease.

MRTP

‘Modified-risk tobacco product’ or ‘MRTP’ is the term formally used by the US Food and Drug Administration to describe an alternative to conventional cigarettes that is associated with less risk of disease.

MRTPs

‘Modified-risk tobacco product’ or ‘MRTP’ is the term formally used by the US Food and Drug Administration to describe an alternative to conventional cigarettes that is associated with less risk of disease.

Mutagen

In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

Mutagenic

In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

Mutagens

In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

N

Neutrophil

A neutrophil is the primary type of white blood cell involved in inflammation.

Neutrophils

A neutrophil is the primary type of white blood cell involved in inflammation.

P

peer-reviewed publication

In academic publishing, the goal of peer review is to assess the quality of article submitted for publication. The review process ensures that the standards for a set discipline are met. Peer-reviewed articles that are accepted for publication exemplify the best research practices in a given field of science

peer-reviewed publications

In academic publishing, the goal of peer review is to assess the quality of article submitted for publication. The review process ensures that the standards for a set discipline are met. Peer-reviewed articles that are accepted for publication exemplify the best research practices in a given field of science

peer-reviewed scientific journal

In academic publishing, the goal of peer review is to assess the quality of article submitted for publication. The review process ensures that the standards for a set discipline are met.  Peer-reviewed articles that are accepted for publication exemplify the best research practices in a given field of science.

peer-reviewed scientific journals

In academic publishing, the goal of peer review is to assess the quality of article submitted for publication. The review process ensures that the standards for a set discipline are met.  Peer-reviewed articles that are accepted for publication exemplify the best research practices in a given field of science.

Pharmacokinetic

Pharmacokinetics is the study of the process by which a pharmacological compound is absorbed, distributed, metabolised and eliminated by the body.

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetics is the study of the process by which a pharmacological compound is absorbed, distributed, metabolised and eliminated by the body.

Proteomic

Proteomics is the systematic approach to characterising all proteins in a given cell population.

Proteomics

Proteomics is the systematic approach to characterising all proteins in a given cell population.

Prototypic RRP

(pRRP). A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

Prototypic RRPs

(pRRPs). A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

pRRP

(Prototypic RRP). A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

pRRPs

(Prototypic RRPs). A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

S

Sham

In our studies, a Sham exposure indicates that a test system has been exposed to fresh air instead of cigarette smoke, the data from which is used as a negative control.

T

THS 2.1

A version of Platform 1

THS 2.2

A version of Platform 1

Transcriptomic

Transcriptomics is the study of the transcriptome, the sum total of all the messenger RNA molecules expressed from the genes of an organism.

Transcriptomics

Transcriptomics is the study of the transcriptome, the sum total of all the messenger RNA molecules expressed from the genes of an organism.

Tumorigenesis

Tumorigenesis is the process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.