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    • 2R4F

      2R4F was a standard reference cigarette, used throughout the tobacco industry and academic laboratories as a consistent and uniform test item for inhalation toxicology research. It was replaced by 3R4F in 2006.

    • 3R4F

      3R4F is a standard reference cigarette, used throughout the tobacco industry and academic laboratories as a consistent and uniform test item for inhalation toxicology research. Developed by the University of Kentucky, Center for Tobacco Reference Products, it has been in use since 2006.

  • A

    • aerosol

      A suspended mixture of small particles -- solid pieces or liquid droplets -- in gas. Examples of aerosols are fog, cigarette smoke, smog.

  • C

    • Candidate RRP

      Candidate RRP is Synonymous with the term prototypic RRP. A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

    • Candidate RRPs

      Candidate RRPs is Synonymous with the term prototypic RRPs. A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

    • Carboxyhaemoglobin

      Carboxyhaemoglobin is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and haemoglobin that forms in red blood cells upon contact with carbon monoxide. Large quantities of carbon monoxide hinders the ability of haemoglobin to deliver oxygen to the body.

  • E

    • e-cigarette

      e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that vaporise a nicotine-containing solution. Many public health experts recognise the risk reduction potential of e-cigarettes. It is also recognized that appropriate product standards and more scientific studies are required.

    • EHCSS

      Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System, was the predecessor device to the current platform 1

    • Endosome

      An endosome is a small body within the cell in which binding molecules are separated from their receptors and from which the receptors are returned to the cell surface.

    • Endosomes

      An endosome is a small body within the cell in which binding molecules are separated from their receptors and from which the receptors are returned to the cell surface.

    • Eosinophil

      An eosinophil is a normal type of white blood cell that is involved in inflammation. Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow and migrate to tissues throughout the body.

    • Eosinophils

      An eosinophil is a normal type of white blood cell that is involved in inflammation. Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow and migrate to tissues throughout the body.

    • exposure

      We can talk about exposure to chemicals because they are present in sufficient quantity and there is a possibility that they can be inhaled, absorbed or ingested by people or lab animals.
      Human chemical exposure is important because it may have an influence on human health.

  • G

    • Genomic

      Genomics is the combination of DNA and RNA sequencing with bioinformatics to analyse the structure and function of the complete set of nucleic acid molecules within cells.

    • Genomics

      Genomics is the combination of DNA and RNA sequencing with bioinformatics to analyse the structure and function of the complete set of nucleic acid molecules within cells.
      This technique aims at providing information on the entirety of genetic material of a sample of a living system.

    • Glycerol/glycerine

      Glycerol is a simple a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid. It is not-toxic. Glycerol is often part of RRP aerosols.

    • Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)

      The principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) promote the quality and validity of data generated in the testing of chemicals and prevent fraudulent practices.

      The principles have been developed in accordance with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the EU has adopted these principles and the revised OECD Guides for Compliance Monitoring Procedures for GLP as annexes to its two GLP Directives.

    • Gross pathological

      Gross pathology refers to relatively large manifestations of disease (ie, visible to the naked eye) in organs, tissues, and body cavities.

    • Gross pathology

      Gross pathology refers to relatively large manifestations of disease (ie, visible to the naked eye) in organs, tissues, and body cavities.

  • H

  • I

    • IQOS

      Platform 1 has been commercialized as IQOS in certain countries.

  • L

    • Lipidomics

      A technique that provides a snapshot of the entire lipid landscape of a biological sample. It is mainly used to witness imbalances in biochemical processes, which may be indicators of disease.

    • Lymphocyte

      A lymphocyte is a form of small white blood cell that is involved in inflammation and found especially in the lymphatic system.

    • Lymphocytes

      A lymphocyte is a form of small white blood cell that is involved in inflammation and found especially in the lymphatic system.

    • Lysosome

      A lysosome is a specialised subunit within a cell containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death.

    • Lysosomes

      A lysosome is a specialised subunit within a cell containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death.

  • M

    • Macrophage

      A macrophage is a large white blood cell that mediates inflammation. Macrophages ingest foreign particles and infectious microorganisms and occur principally in connective tissue and the bloodstream.

    • Macrophages

      A macrophage is a large white blood cell that mediates inflammation. Macrophages ingest foreign particles and infectious microorganisms and occur principally in connective tissue and the bloodstream.

    • Metabolomics

      The systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints of cellular processes.
      The subject of metabolomics is the 'metabolome', which represents the collection of all metabolism products in a biological organism or sample.

    • Modified-risk tobacco product

      ‘Modified-risk tobacco product’ or ‘MRTP’ is the term formally used by the US Food and Drug Administration to describe an alternative to cigarettes that is associated with less risk of disease.

    • Modified-risk tobacco products

      ‘Modified-risk tobacco product’ or ‘MRTP’ is the term formally used by the US Food and Drug Administration to describe an alternative to cigarettes that is associated with less risk of disease.

    • MRTP

      ‘Modified-risk tobacco product’ or ‘MRTP’ is the term formally used by the US Food and Drug Administration to describe an alternative to conventional cigarettes that is associated with less risk of disease.

    • MRTPs

      ‘Modified-risk tobacco product’ or ‘MRTP’ is the term formally used by the US Food and Drug Administration to describe an alternative to conventional cigarettes that is associated with less risk of disease.

    • Mutagen

      In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

    • Mutagenic

      In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

    • Mutagens

      In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

  • N

    • Neutrophil

      A neutrophil is the primary type of white blood cell involved in inflammation.

    • Neutrophils

      A neutrophil is the primary type of white blood cell involved in inflammation.

  • O

    • omics

      "Omics" is summary term in biology that covers methods capable of describing entire molecular landscapes of living systems. These methods include genomics, proteomics, lipidomimcs, transcriptomics or metabolomics.

  • P

    • Peer-reviewed publication

      In academic publishing, the goal of peer review is to assess the quality of article submitted for publication. The review process ensures that the standards for a set discipline are met. Peer-reviewed articles that are accepted for publication exemplify the best research practices in a given field of science

    • Peer-reviewed publications

      In academic publishing, the goal of peer review is to assess the quality of article submitted for publication. The review process ensures that the standards for a set discipline are met. Peer-reviewed articles that are accepted for publication exemplify the best research practices in a given field of science

    • Peer-reviewed scientific journal

      In academic publishing, the goal of peer review is to assess the quality of article submitted for publication. The review process ensures that the standards for a set discipline are met.  Peer-reviewed articles that are accepted for publication exemplify the best research practices in a given field of science.

    • Peer-reviewed scientific journals

      In academic publishing, the goal of peer review is to assess the quality of article submitted for publication. The review process ensures that the standards for a set discipline are met.  Peer-reviewed articles that are accepted for publication exemplify the best research practices in a given field of science.

    • Pharmacokinetic

      Pharmacokinetics is the study of the process by which a pharmacological compound is absorbed, distributed, metabolised and eliminated by the body.

    • Pharmacokinetics

      Pharmacokinetics is the study of the process by which a pharmacological compound is absorbed, distributed, metabolised and eliminated by the body.

    • Proteomic

      Proteomics is the systematic approach to characterising all proteins in a given cell population.

    • Proteomics

      Proteomics is the systematic approach to characterising all proteins in a given cell population. This technique provides a snapshot of the entire protein landscape of a sample of living system. It gives a birds'-eye view on active processes at the level of the cells.

    • Prototypic RRP

      (pRRP). A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

    • Prototypic RRPs

      (pRRPs). A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

    • pRRP

      (Prototypic RRP). A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP. 

    • pRRPs

      (Prototypic RRPs). A prototype version of the current RRP platforms. A prototype RRP needs to fulfil specific criteria that we have set before it becomes an RRP.

  • R

    • RRP -- Reduced-Risk Product

      Reduced-Risk Products (“RRPs”) is the term we use to refer to products that present, are likely to present, or have the potential to present less risk of harm to smokers who switch to these products versus continued smoking.  We have a range of RRPs in various stages of development, scientific assessment and commercialization. Because our RRPs do not burn tobacco, they produce far lower quantities of harmful and potentially harmful compounds than found in cigarette smoke.

  • S

    • Sham

      In our studies, a Sham exposure indicates that a test system has been exposed to fresh air instead of cigarette smoke, the data from which is used as a negative control.

  • T

    • THS 2.1

      A version of Platform 1

    • THS 2.2

      A version of Platform 1

    • Transcriptomic

      Transcriptomics is the study of the transcriptome, the sum total of all the messenger RNA molecules expressed from the genes of an organism.

    • Transcriptomics

      A technique that provides a birds'-eye view on which genes are active in a given biological sample. The entirety of active genes can indicate if there is any biological perturbation in the sample such as defense mechanisms or disease. The subject of transcriptomics is the 'transcriptome', which includes all messenger RNAs expressed from the genes of a biological sample.

    • Tumorigenesis

      Tumorigenesis is the process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.