Median estimation of chemical constituents for sampling on two occasions under a log-normal model.

Authored by  A Kondylis

Published in Biometrical Journal.     57(5): 914–929.

Sampling from a finite population on multiple occasions introduces dependencies between the successive samples when overlap is designed. Such sampling designs lead to efficient statistical estimates, while they allow estimating changes over time for the targeted outcomes. This makes them very popular in real‐world statistical practice. Sampling with partial replacement can also be very efficient in biological and environmental studies where estimation of toxicants and its trends over time is the main interest. Sampling with partial replacement is designed here on two occasions in order to estimate the median concentration of chemical constituents quantified by means of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Such data represent relative peak areas resulting from the chromatographic analysis. They are therefore positive‐valued and skewed data, and are commonly fitted very well by the log‐normal model. A log‐normal model is assumed here for chemical constituents quantified in mainstream cigarette smoke in a real case study. Combining design‐based and model‐based approaches for statistical inference, we seek for the median estimation of chemical constituents by sampling with partial replacement on two time occasions. We also discuss the limitations of extending the proposed approach to other skewed population models. The latter is investigated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study.