FDA's list of HPHCs

      Comparison between HPHC levels in THS 2.2 aerosol and cigarette smoke

      4 October 2019

      In 2012, the U.S. FDA published a list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) found in tobacco products and smoke, known as the FDA 93 list as it comprises 93 compounds or classes of compounds. This list covers toxicants linked to diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, among others. Below, we’ve listed the levels of those HPHCs (with the exception of nicotine) measured in the smoke of a standard reference cigarette (3R4F) and aerosols of two versions of our Tobacco Heating System (THS 2.2).

      In all cases where a comparison could be made we found that HPHC levels in the THS were lower compared to 3R4F, with an average reduction of >90.5% for THS 2.2 Regular and >91.0% for THS 2.2 Smooth Menthol.

      All analyses were conducted by Labstat International ULC (Kitchener, ON, Canada) according to their own methods and protocols. The standard Health Canada intense smoking regime was applied to both the 3R4F and the THS.

      Levels of HPHCs, as well as standard deviation, for the THS regular and menthol, compared to 3R4F. Number of replicates = 3.


      • AαC: 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole
      • CDD: Chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
      • CDF: Chlorodibenzofuran
      • CO: Carbon monoxide
      • Glu-P-1: 2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a: 3',2'-d]imidazole
      • Glu-P-2: 2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a: 3',2'-d]imidazole; IQ: 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline
      • LOD: Limit of detection
      • LOQ: Limit of quantification
      • MeAαC: 2-Amino-3-methyl)-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole
      • NDEA: N-Nitrosodiethylamine
      • NDELA : N-Nitrosodiethanolamine
      • NDMA: N-Nitrosodimethylamine
      • NEMA: N-Nitrosomethylethylamine
      • NMOR: N-Nitrosomorpholine
      • NPIP: N-Nitrosopiperidine
      • NPYR: N-Nitrosopyrrolidine
      • PAHs: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
      • PhIP: 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine
      • Trp-P-1: 3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole
      • Trp-P-2: 1-Methyl-3-amino-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole
      • TSNA: Tobacco specific nitrosamines.


      *: No standard deviation could be calculated.

      NA: No % reduction could be calculated.

      When the results for the THS were either below the LOQ or LOD, the value of the LOQ and LOD was used for the reduction calculation. When both the reference cigarette and THS levels were below the LOQ/LOD, no reduction could be calculated.