Peer-Reviewed Publications

      A literature review and framework proposal for halitosis assessment in cigarette smokers and alternative nicotine-delivery products users

      Zanetti, F.; Zivkovic Semren, T.; Battey, J. N. D.; Guy, P. A.; Ivanov, N. V.; van der Plas, A.; Hoeng, J.

      Dec 10, 2021

      Halitosis is a health condition which counts cigarette smoking (CS) among its major risk factors. Cigarette smoke can cause an imbalance in the oral bacterial community, leading to several oral diseases and conditions, including intraoral halitosis. Although the best approach to decrease smoking-related health risks is quitting smoking, this is not feasible for many smokers. Switching to potentially reduced-risk products, like electronic vapor products (EVP) or heated tobacco products (HTP), may help improve the conditions associated with CS. To date, there have been few systematic studies on the effects of CS on halitosis and none have assessed the effects of EVP and HTP use. Self-assessment studies have shown large limitations owing to the lack of reliability in the participants' judgment. This has compelled the scientific community to develop a strategy for meaningful assessment of these new products in comparison with cigarettes. Here, we compiled a review of the existing literature on CS and halitosis and propose a 3-layer approach that combines the use of the most advanced breath analysis techniques and multi-omics analysis to define the interactions between oral bacterial species and their role in halitosis both in vitro and in vivo. Such an approach will allow us to compare the effects of different nicotine-delivery products on oral bacteria and quantify their impact on halitosis. Defining the impact of alternative nicotine-delivery products on intraoral halitosis and its associated bacteria will help the scientific community advance a step further toward understanding the safety of these products and their potentiall risks for consumers.