A method for the analysis of o-toluidine, o-anisidine, 2-naphthylamine, and 4-aminobiphenyl in cigarette mainstream smoke has been developed, which combines the sensitivity of their pentafluoropropionyl (PFP) derivatives in negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) mode with the selectivity of the gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) technique. The use of four deuterated analogues as internal standards along with the application of the standard addition method results in accurate and precise results; the interday precision for the aromatic amines was 3–10% and the accuracy ranged from 97–100%. This method was applied to two American-blend University of Kentucky reference cigarettes, eight American-blend market cigarettes, a bright (flue-cured) tobacco cigarette, and an electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS). For the American-blend cigarettes there was a linear correlation between aromatic amine yields and mainstream smoke ‘tar’ (‘tar’ = total particulate matter − (nicotine + water)), whereas the bright tobacco cigarette and the EHCSS demonstrated significantly lower aromatic amine yields on an equal ‘tar’ basis. The results support the hypothesis that the nitrogen content of the tobacco, and above all the cigarette combustion temperature, are determining factors for the yields of aromatic amines in smoke.