Tobacco smoking contributes to tooth discoloration. Pigmented compounds in the smoke generated by combustion of tobacco can cause discoloration of dental hard tissues. However, aerosols from heated tobacco products cause less discoloration than cigarette smoke (CS) in vitro. The objective of the present study was to optimize a method for extracting the colored chemical compounds deposited on tooth enamel following exposure to total particulate matter (TPM) from CS or a heated tobacco product (Tobacco Heating System [THS] 2.2), analyze the extracts by gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and identify the key chemicals associated with tooth discoloration. Sixty bovine enamel blocks were exposed for 2 weeks to TPM from CS or THS 2.2 aerosol or to artificial saliva as a control. Brushing without toothpaste and color measurements were performed each week. Noticeable discoloration of enamel was observed following exposure to CS TPM. The discoloration following exposure to THS 2.2 aerosol TPM or artificial saliva was not distinguishable to the eye (ΔE < 3.3). Carbon disulfide was used to extract surface-deposited chemicals. Untargeted analyses were followed by partial least squares correlation against discoloration scores (R2 = 0.96). Eleven compounds had variable importance in projection scores greater than 2. Discriminant autocorrelation matrix calculation of their mass spectral information identified eight of the eleven compounds as terpenoids. None of the compounds were related to nicotine. Several of these compounds were also detected in THS 2.2 aerosol TPM-exposed enamel, but at lower levels, in line with our findings showing less discoloration. Compared with CS TPM exposure, THS 2.2 aerosol TPM exposure resulted in lower deposition of color-related compounds on enamel surface, consistent with minimal discoloration of dental enamel.