Peer-Reviewed Publications

      Analysis of cigarette mainstream smoke for 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and vinyl acetate by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

      Diekmann, J.; Biefel, C.; Rustemeier, K.
      Oct 1, 2002

      1,1-Dimethylhydrazine, also known as unsymdimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and vinyl acetate (VA), are both classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as 2B carcinogens (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and listed as cigarette smoke constituents; however, there is little or no quantitative data available on them. For UDMH in cigarette smoke, neither a yield nor a method has been published. For VA, the most recent information on yields dates back to 1965. To bridge this gap, we have developed new gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods for both compounds to determine their yields in cigarette smoke. UDMH is determined by derivatization with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde in methanol and is not found in cigarette smoke at levels above the detection limit of 19 ng/cig. In further experiments, when UDMH is added to the smoke stream or air stream of lit or unlit cigarettes, the derivative 2-nitrobenzaldehyde-2,2-dimethylhydrazone is found only in the air stream of the unlit cigarettes. From this, we conclude that UDMH is either not formed during smoking at all or, if it is, it reacts immediately and quantitatively with other smoke constituents (e.g., aldehydes) and is therefore not detectable in cigarette smoke. VA is determined by trapping in acetone at -78 °C and is found at a concentration of 270 ng/cig for a standard reference cigarette with a cellulose acetate filter (the reference cigarette 1R4F). In the literature, VA is reported at concentrations of 1.6 µg/cig for a cigarette with a cellulose acetate/charcoal filter and 4 µg/cig for a cigarette with a cellulose acetate filter and for an unfiltered cigarette.