Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the collective term for chronic immune-mediated diseases of unknown, multifactorial etiology, arising from the interplay between genetic and environmental factors and including two main disease manifestations: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. In the last few decades, naturally occurring alkaloids have gained interest because of their substantial anti-inflammatory effects in several animal models of disease. Studies on mouse models of IBD have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory action of the main tobacco alkaloid, nicotine. In addition, anatabine, a minor tobacco alkaloid also present in peppers, tomato, and eggplant presents anti-inflammatory properties in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of nicotine and anatabine in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of UC. Results: Oral administration of anatabine, but not nicotine, reduced the clinical symptoms of DSS-induced colitis. The result of gene expression analysis suggested that anatabine had a restorative effect on global DSS-induced gene expression profiles, while nicotine only had limited effects. Accordingly, MAP findings revealed that anatabine reduced the colonic abundance of DSS-associated cytokines and increased IL-10 abundance. Conclusions: Our results support the amelioration of inflammatory effects by anatabine in the DSS mouse model of UC, and suggest that anatabine constitutes a promising therapeutic agent for IBD treatment.