Peer-Reviewed Publications

      Assessment of a 72-hour repeated exposure to Swedish snus extract and total particulate matter from 3R4F cigarettes on gingival organotypic cultures

      Zanetti, F.; Sewer, A.; Titz, B.; Schlage, W. K.; Iskandar, A. R.; Kondylis, A.; Leroy, P.; Guedj, E.; Trivedi, K.; Elamin, A.; Martin, F.; Frentzel, S.; Ivanov, N. V.; Peitsch, M. C.; Hoeng, J.

      Jan 2, 2019

      Swedish snus is a smokeless tobacco product that contains reduced levels of harmful compounds compared with cigarette smoke. In Sweden, where snus use exceeds smoking among men, relatively low rates of major smoking-related diseases have been recorded. To better understand how snus use could align with current tobacco harm reduction strategies, its potential mechanisms of toxicity must be investigated. This study aimed to determine, via a systems toxicology approach, the biological impact of repeated 72-hour exposure of human gingival epithelial organotypic cultures to extracts from both a commercial and a reference snus and the total particulate matter (TPM) from cigarette smoke. At concentrations relevant for human use, cultures treated with snus extracts induced mild, generally reversible biological changes, while TPM treatment induced substantial morphological and inflammatory alterations. Network enrichment analysis and integrative analysis of the global mRNA and miRNA expression profiles indicated a limited and mostly transient impact of the snus extracts, in particular on xenobiotic metabolism, while the effects of TPM were marked and sustained over time. High-confidence miRNAs that might be related to pathological conditions in vivo were identified. This study highlights the limited biological impact of Swedish snus extract on human organotypic gingival cultures.