Eight blended US market cigarettes, two blended reference cigarettes, one Bright tobacco only reference cigarette and an electrically heated prototype cigarette (EHC) were smoked under US Federal Trade Commission (FTC)/International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) conditions and under Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) conditions. Smoke was analysed for chemical composition and in vitro toxicity. Yields (quantity/cigarette) of smoke constituents were higher under MDPH conditions compared to FTC/ISO conditions (market and reference average approximately 2.5 times; EHC approximately 1.6 times). Consistent with the higher yields, in vitro toxicity per cigarette was also higher under MDPH conditions. Concentrations (quantity/mg TPM) of nearly all smoke constituents measured decreased with increasing total particulate matter (TPM) yields as regression analyses indicated. Higher TPM yields also tended to be associated with slightly less cytotoxic and mutagenic activity per milligram TPM. Blended reference cigarettes tracked market cigarettes with similar TPM yield. The Bright cigarette displayed high cytotoxicity but low mutagenicity, while in vitro activity of the EHC was remarkably low. The TPM-dependent decreases for the market range of 5-20 mg TPM/cigarette were about 20%, irrespective of whether the increased yields were due to smoking conditions or cigarette construction. At the same TPM yield, the smoke constituent concentrations and in vitro toxicity were similar for low- and high-yield cigarettes.