Smoking of combustible cigarettes has a major impact on human health. Using a systems toxicology approach in a model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (C57BL/6 mice), we assessed the health consequences in mice of an aerosol derived from a prototype modified risk tobacco product (pMRTP) as compared to conventional cigarettes. We investigated physiological and histological endpoints in parallel with transcriptomics, lipidomics, and proteomics profiles in mice exposed to a reference cigarette (3R4F) smoke or a pMRTP aerosol for up to 7 months. We also included a cessation group and a switching-to-pMRTP group (after 2 months of 3R4F exposure) in addition to the control (fresh air-exposed) group, to understand the potential risk reduction of switching to pMRTP compared with continuous 3R4F exposure and cessation. The present manuscript describes the study design, setup, and implementation, as well as the generation, processing, and quality control analysis of the toxicology and 'omics' datasets that are accessible in public repositories for further analyses.