Aromatic amines (arylamines) such as o-toluidine, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 4-aminobiphenyl occur in the environment and are constituents of tobacco smoke. Human exposure to these aromatic amines has long been associated with an elevated risk of bladder cancer. A validated, specific, and sensitive method for measuring o-toluidine, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 4-aminobiphenyl in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers was developed. The method uses acid hydrolysis of the arylamine conjugates in urine, extraction with n-hexane, derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride, and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry using negative ion chemical ionization. The limits of detection were 4 ng/L for o-toluidine and 1 ng/L for 2-aminonaphthalene and 4-aminobiphenyl. Smokers (N = 10) excreted significantly higher amounts of o-toluidine (204 versus 104 ng/24 h), 2-aminonaphthalene (20.8 versus 10.7 ng/24 h), and 4-aminobiphenyl (15.3 versus 9.6 ng/24 h) than nonsmokers (N = 10). Urinary arylamine excretion in smokers was associated with the extent of smoking as assessed by daily cigarette consumption, urinary excretion of nicotine equivalents (nicotine plus its five major metabolites), cotinine in saliva, and carbon monoxide in exhaled breath. All nonsmokers investigated had quantifiable amounts of o-toluidine, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 4-aminobiphenyl in their urine, confirming that other environmental sources of exposure to these compounds also occur. In conclusion, the analytical method is suitable for measuring short-term exposure to arylamines in urine of non-occupationally exposed smokers and nonsmokers.