Endocardial neoplasms were observed in 13 Wistar rats, 15–30 months old, from a 30-month inhalation study. Eight of the rats were dissected at 30 months and the other five between 15 and 29 months. Histologically, the lesions in the heart were diagnosed as endocardial schwannomas. Two of the 13 schwannomas were malignant, while the rest were benign. One malignant schwannoma metastasized to the thymus and the other metastasized to the aorta, oesophagus, liver and spleen. Some schwannomas appeared as early lesions limited to the endocardium consisting of round to ovoid cells interspersed with spindle cells, while other schwannomas appeared as advanced lesions consisting of a thin superficial layer of round to ovoid cells and a deeper layer of spindle cells characteristic of endocardial schwannomas. The histological appearance of the metastases was identical to that of the primary tumour. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive immunostaining for S-100 protein. The incidence of endocardial schwannomas in the Wistar rat strain was 1.8%.