In the present study, the feasibility of applying highresolution microtomography (micro-CT) for the detection of lung tumors was investigated in live mice at an early and more advanced stage of tumor development. The chest area of anesthesized mice was scanned by X-ray micro-CT. In mice with a minor and heavy tumor load, micro-CT proved to be a fast and noninvasive imaging device for the detection of lung tumors. After validation of the CT data by histologic sectioning, it was shown that the majority of tumors could be distinguished in the reconstructed virtual slices obtained by micro-CT. The data from micro-CT were also confirmed by visual inspection of the inflated and excised lungs postmortem. In vivo micro-CT opens broad perspectives for imaging tumor development and its progression in a noninvasive way. Micro-CT also allows for longitudinal evaluation of the treatment of lung cancer by drugs.