Background: Thromboxane is a key clinical risk endpoint of smoking-induced inflammation which has been associated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this review is to quantify the effect of smoking and smoking cessation on one of its urinary metabolites, 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2. Methods: PubMed and SCOPUS were searched to identify publications which report urinary 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2 levels in smokers and non-smokers, as well as articles reporting the effect of smoking cessation on urinary 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2 excretion. Results: We found ten studies assessing urinary 11-dehydrothroboxaneB2 levels in smokers and non-smokers. Four papers reported the amount of urinary 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2 excreted in 24 h while six reported the amount excreted adjusted for creatinine. The meta-analyses comparing the excretion of urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane in current smokers to non-smokers report increased levels in current smokers (mean difference = 0.31 μg/24-h [95%CI: 0.27–0.34] and 166.45 pg/mg creatinine [95%CI: 120.51–212.40]). There were not enough publications to perform meta-analyses on the effects of smoking cessation on urinary 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2 excretion. Conclusions: Urinary 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2 levels are increased in cigarette smokers, however, more data are needed to elucidate the effects of smoking cessation on urinary 11-dehydrothromboxaneB2 excretion.