Mitochondria are multifunctional and dynamic organelles deeply integrated into cellular physiology and metabolism. Disturbances in mitochondrial function are involved in several disorders such as neurodegeneration, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and also in the aging process. Nicotine is a natural alkaloid present in the tobacco plant which has been well studied as a constituent of cigarette smoke. It has also been reported to influence mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge of nicotine action on mitochondrial function. Observed effects of nicotine exposure on the mitochondrial respiratory chain, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, and mitophagy are discussed, considering the context of the experimental design. The potential action of nicotine on cellular adaptation and cell survival is also examined through its interaction with mitochondria. Although a large number of studies have demonstrated the impact of nicotine on various mitochondrial activities, elucidating its mechanism of action requires further investigation.