We conducted an inhalation study, in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline 453, exposing A/J mice to tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2 aerosol or 3R4F reference cigarette smoke (CS) for up to 18 months to evaluate chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. All exposed mice showed lower thymus and spleen weight, blood lymphocyte counts, and serum lipid concentrations than sham mice, most likely because of stress and/or nicotine effects. Unlike THS 2.2 aerosol-exposed mice, CS-exposed mice showed increased heart weight, changes in red blood cell profiles and serum liver function parameters. Similarly, increased pulmonary inflammation, altered lung function, and emphysematous changes were observed only in CS-exposed mice. Histopathological changes in other respiratory tract organs were significantly lower in the THS 2.2 aerosol-exposed groups than in the CS-exposed group. Chronic exposure to THS 2.2 aerosol also did not increase the incidence or multiplicity of bronchioloalveolar adenomas or carcinomas relative to sham, whereas CS exposure did. Male THS 2.2 aerosol-exposed mice had a lower survival rate than sham mice, related to an increased incidence of urogenital issues that appears to be related to congenital factors rather than test item exposure. The lower impact of THS 2.2 aerosol exposure on tumor development and chronic toxicity is consistent with the significantly reduced levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents in THS 2.2 aerosol relative to CS. The totality of the evidence from this study further supports the risk reduction potential of THS 2.2 for lung diseases in comparison with cigarettes.