In order to assess robustness for the reduction of harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) levels generated by the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2), a heated tobacco product, we compared the aerosol of this product with mainstream smoke from the 3R4F reference cigarette under different conditions of temperature and humidity. The desired climatic conditions were achieved by using an air-conditioning system coupled with the smoking-machine housing. Two extreme climatic conditions were selected, representing a “Hot and Dry” climate (30 °C and 35% relative humidity RH) and a “Hot and Very Humid” climate (30 °C and 75% RH). In addition, aerosol and smoke were generated using the standard conditions recognized for smoking-machine analyses of tobacco products (22 °C and 60% RH), which were close to the climatic conditions defined for “Subtropical and Mediterranean” environments (25 °C and 60% RH). The experimental conditions were chosen to simulate the use of THS 2.2 and cigarettes under extreme conditions of temperature and humidity. HeatSticks and cigarettes taken from freshly opened packs were subjected to short-term conditioning from two to a few more days under the same experimental conditions. We analyzed 54 HPHCs in THS 2.2 aerosol and 3R4F cigarette smoke, generated in accordance with the Health Canada Intense (HCI) standard, using modified temperature and humidity conditions for sample conditioning and machine-smoking experiments. We used a volume-adjusted approach for comparing HPHC reductions across the different climatic conditions investigated. Although a single puffing regimen was used, the total puff volume recorded for the 3R4F cigarette smoke varied due to the influence of temperature and humidity on combustion rate, which justified the use of a volume-adjusted approach. Volume-adjusted yields were derived from HPHC yields expressed in mass-per-tobacco stick normalized per total puff volume.