Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) causes detrimental health effects, increasing the risk of cardiovascular, pulmonary diseases and carcinogenesis in exposed individuals. The impact of CS on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has been established by a number of epidemiological and clinical studies. In fact, CS is associated with a higher risk of developing Crohn’s disease (CD) while inversely correlates with the development, disease risks, and relapse rate of ulcerative colitis (UC). To investigate the effect of CS exposure on experimental colitis, we performed a comprehensive and integrated comparative analysis of colon transcriptome and microbiome in mice exposed to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and CS. Colon transcriptome analysis revealed that CS downregulated specific pathways in a concentration-dependent manner, affecting both the inflammatory state and composition of the gut microbiome. Metagenomics analysis demonstrated that CS can modulate DSS-induced dysbiosis of specific bacterial genera, contributing to resolve the inflammation or accelerate recovery. The risks of smoking far outweigh any possible benefit, thus smoking cessation must always be encouraged because of its significant health benefits. However, the inverse association between active smoking and the development of UC cannot be ignored and the present study lays the foundation for investigating potential molecular mechanisms responsible for the attenuation of colitis by certain compounds of tobacco when decoupled from combustion.