Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to chronic intestinal immune-mediated diseases including two main disease manifestations: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Epidemiological, clinical, and preclinical evidence has highlighted the potential anti-inflammatory properties of naturally occurring alkaloids. In the present study, we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the tobacco alkaloids nicotine and anatabine in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mouse model with a fully humanized immune system. Our results show that nicotine significantly reduced all acute colitis symptoms and improved colitis-specific endpoints, including histopathologically assessed colon inflammation, tissue damage, and mononuclear cell infiltration. The tobacco alkaloid anatabine showed similar effectiveness trends, although they were generally weaker or not significant. Gene expression analysis in the context of biological network models of IBD further pinpointed a possible mechanism by which nicotine attenuated DSS-induced colitis in humanized mice. The current study enables further investigation of possible molecular mechanisms by which tobacco alkaloids attenuate UC symptoms.