Updated: 29 April 2021

At PMI Science, we welcome and encourage independent research on our products and our methods and results. Over the past few years a growing number of organizations and institutions have initiated studies around our reduced-risk products and/or the methods/results surrounding them.

Below we've listed those independent scientific studies with original data and original analysis we are aware of on our products and the wider product category. Publications without original data or analysis, such as many review articles, commentaries, and opinion pieces are not included. For the sake of transparency, we included all independent studies even if at times, we disagree with the methodology followed and/or the conclusions reached.

Number of publications to-date: 164.

Asterisk (*) indicates a non-product specific study.


Independent Publications from 2021

164. Wang, Y et al. Effects of conventional and heated tobacco product smoking on discoloration of artificial denture teeth. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. February 2021.

163. Gallus, S et al. The Role of Novel (Tobacco) Products on Tobacco Control in Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. February 2021.

162. Ikonomidis, I et al. Effects of heat-not-burn compared to combustible cigarettes on coronary flow, myocardial work index and vascular function. European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging. February 2021. *

161. Yi, J et al. Prevalence and predictors of heated tobacco products use among male ever smokers: results from a Korean longitudinal study. BMC Public Health. February 2021. *

160. Gallus, S et al. USE AND AWARENESS OF HEATED TOBACCO PRODUCTS IN EUROPE. Journal of Epidemiology. January 2021.

159. Huh, Y; Cho, H J. Associations between the Type of Tobacco Products and Suicidal Behaviors: A Nationwide Population-Based Study among Korean Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. January 2021. *

158. Matsuyama, Y; Tabuchi, T. Heated tobacco product use and combustible cigarette smoking relapse/initiation among former/never smokers in Japan: the JASTIS 2019 study with 1-year follow-up. Tobacco Control. January 2021. *

157. Luo, C et al. Effects of potassium additives on the combustion characteristics of graphite as a heating source of heat-not-burn tobacco. RSC Advances. January 2021. *

Independent Publications from 2020

156. Queloz, S; Etter J-F. A survey of users of the IQOS tobacco vaporizer: perceived dependence and perceived effects on cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Journal of Addictive Diseases. December 2020.

155. Gottschlich, A et al. Cross-sectional study on the awareness, susceptibility and use of heated tobacco products among adolescents in Guatemala City, Guatemala. BMJ Open. December 2020. 

154. Bhat, T A et al. Acute effects of heated tobacco product (IQOS) aerosol inhalation on lung tissue damage and inflammatory changes in the lungs. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. December 2020.

153. Chang, L C et al. Prevalence of heated tobacco product use among adolescents in Taiwan. PLOS ONE. December 2020.

152. Li, Y et al. Modeled Respiratory Tract Deposition of Smoke Aerosol from Conventional Cigarettes, Electronic Cigarettes and Heat-not-burn Products. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. December 2020.

151. Marukina, H I et al. Verrucous leukoplakia of the red border caused by the use of IQOS heated tobacco product (a case report). Zaporozhye Medical Journal. December 2020.

150. Kiyohara, K; Tabuchi T. Use of heated tobacco products in smoke-free locations in Japan: the JASTIS 2019 study. Tobacco Control. November 2020.

149. Ito, Y et al. Heat-Not-Burn cigarette induces oxidative stress response in primary rat alveolar epithelial cells. PLOS ONE. November 2020.

148. Hirano, T et al. Exposure Assessment of Environmental Tobacco Aerosol from Heated Tobacco Products: Nicotine and PM Exposures under Two Limited Conditions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. November 2020.

147. Hirano, T; Takei, T. Estimating the Carcinogenic Potency of Second-Hand Smoke and Aerosol from Cigarettes and Heated Tobacco Products. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. November 2020.

146. Yoshida, S et al. Effects of Fetal Exposure to Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco on Testicular Function in Male Offspring. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. November 2020.

145. Simms, L et al. The use of human induced pluripotent stem cells to screen for developmental toxicity potential indicates reduced potential for non-combusted products, when compared to cigarettes. Current Research in Toxicology. November 2020.

144. Xu, S S et al. Reasons for Regularly Using Heated Tobacco Products among Adult Current and Former Smokers in Japan: Finding from 2018 ITC Japan Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. October 2020.

143. Scharf, P et al. Immunotoxic mechanisms of cigarette smoke and heat-not-burn tobacco vapor on Jurkat T cell functions. Environmental Pollution. October 2020.

142. Murkett, R et al. Nicotine products relative risk assessment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. F1000Research. October 2020. *

141. Yumoto, T et al. Potentially fatal ingestion of heat-not-burn cigarettes successfully treated by gastric lavage. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open. October 2020.

140. Hwang, J H et al. Cigarette or E-Cigarette Use as Strong Risk Factors for Heated Tobacco Product Use among Korean Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. September 2020.

139. Miller, C R et al. Awareness, trial and use of heated tobacco products among adult cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users: findings from the 2018 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Tobacco Control. September 2020.

138. Moldoveanu, S C et al. Variations of TSNA levels in tobaccos upon heating at moderate temperatures. Beiträge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research. September 2020. *

137. Sutanto, E et al. Perceived relative harm of heated tobacco products (IQOS), e-cigarettes, and cigarettes among adults in Canada: Findings from the ITC Project. Tobacco Induced Diseases. September 2020.

136. Lee, C M. The Impact of Heated Tobacco Products on Smoking Cessation, Tobacco Use, and Tobacco Sales in South Korea. Korean Journal of Family Medicine. September 2020. *

135. Gruszczynski, L; Melillo, M. The FCTC dilemma on heated tobacco products. Globalization and Health. September 2020.

134. Luk T T et al. Association of heated tobacco product use with smoking cessation in Chinese cigarette smokers in Hong Kong: a prospective study. Tobacco Control. September 2020.

133. Jiang, X et al. Effects of puffing parameters on mainstream aerosol emissions from electrically heated tobacco products. China Tobacco Journal. 2020. (In Chinese).

132. Zhiwei S et al. Electro-thermal simulation of heating element for electrically heated tobacco products. Tobacco Science & Technology. September 2020. (In Chinese)  *

131. Kim, S H; Cho H-J (2020). Prevalence and correlates of current use of heated tobacco products among a nationally representative sample of Korean adults: Results from a cross-sectional study. Tobacco Induced Diseases. August 2020.

130. Cho, J H. Association between Heated Tobacco Products Use and Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents. Journal of Environmental Health Sciences. August 2020. (In Korean).

129. Papaefsthathiou, E et al. Breath analysis of smokers, non-smokers, and e-cigarette users. Journal of Chromatography B. August 2020.

128. Aspera-Werz R H et al. Assessment of tobacco heating system 2.4 on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and primary human osteoblasts compared to conventional cigarettes. World Journal of Stem Cells. August 2020.

127. Peruzzi, M et al. Comparative Indoor Pollution from Glo, Iqos, and Juul, Using Traditional Combustion Cigarettes as Benchmark: Evidence from the Randomized SUR-VAPES AIR Trial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. August 2020.

126. Kim S H et al. Beliefs about the harmfulness of heated tobacco products compared with combustible cigarettes and their effectiveness for smoking cessation among Korean adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. August 2020. *

125. Topuridze, M et al. Smokers' and Nonsmokers' Receptivity to Smoke-Free Policies and Pro- and Anti-Policy Messaging in Armenia and Georgia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. July 2020.

124. Franzen, K F et al. The impact of heated tobacco products on arterial stiffness. Vascular Medicine. July 2020.

123. El-Hage, R et al. Vaped Humectants in E-Cigarettes Are a Source of Phenols. Chemical Research in Toxicology. July 2020.

121. Cammalleri, V et al. How Do Combustion and Non-Combustion Products Used Outdoors Affect Outdoor and Indoor Particulate Matter Levels? A Field Evaluation Near the Entrance of an Italian University Library. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. July 2020.

120. Lee, T et al. Mitigation of harmful chemical formation from pyrolysis of tobacco waste using CO2. Journal of Hazardous Materials. July 2020.

119. Dusautoir, G et al. Comparison of the chemical composition of aerosols from heated tobacco products, electronic cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes and their toxic impacts on the human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Journal of Hazardous Materials. July 2020.

118. Tong, Y et al. Study on the influence factors of the release characteristics of IQOS cigarette smoke. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. July 2020.

117. Arslan, H N et al. Evaluation of the Opinions of Family Physicians on Some Tobacco Products. Journal of Community Health. July 2020.

116. Liu H et al. MD-GC/MS analysis of aerosol components of heated tobacco products (HTPs). China Tobacco Journal. June 2020. (In Chinese).

115. Deng J et al Overview of the battery management system (BMS) of heated tobacco products (HTPs) smoking sets. China Tobacco Journal. June 2020. (In Chinese).

114. Lempert, L K; Glantz, S. Analysis of FDA's IQOS marketing authorisation and its policy impacts. Tobacco Control. June 2020.

113. Lee, Y-C et al. Comparing the Characteristics of Cigarette Smoking and e-Cigarette and IQOS Use among Adolescents in Taiwan. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. June 2020.

112. Li Nga, J D et al. Comparison of End Tidal Carbon Monoxide Levels Between Conventional Cigarette, Electronic Cigarette and Heated Tobacco Product Among Asiatic Smokers. Substance Use & Misuse. June 2020.

111. Wang, L et al. Harmful Chemicals of Heat Not Burn Product and Its Induced Oxidative Stress of Macrophages at Air-Liquid Interface: Comparison With Ultra-Light Cigarette . Toxicology Letters. June 2020.

110. Hori, A et al. Rapid Increase in Heated Tobacco Product (HTP) Use From 2015 to 2019: From the Japan 'Society and New Tobacco' Internet Survey (JASTIS). Tobacco Control. June 2020.

109. Biondi Zoccai, G et al. A randomized trial comparing the acute coronary, systemic, and environmental effects of electronic vaping cigarettes versus heat-not-burn cigarettes in smokers of combustible cigarettes undergoing invasive coronary assessment: rationale and design of the SUR-VAPES 3 trial. Minerva Cardioangiologica. June 2020.

108. Pataka, A et al. Acute Effects of a Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Product on Pulmonary Function. Medicina. June 2020.

107. Ilies, B D et al. Identification of volatile constituents released from IQOS heat-not-burn tobacco HeatSticks using a direct sampling method. Tobacco Control. May 2020.

106. Adamson, J et al. Results from a 2018 cross-sectional survey in Tokyo, Osaka and Sendai to assess tobacco and nicotine product usage after the introduction of heated tobacco products (HTPs) in Japan. Harm Reduction Journal. May 2020.

105. Bitzer, Z T et al. Free Radical Production and Characterization of Heat-Not-Burn Cigarettes in Comparison to Conventional and Electronic Cigarettes. Chemical Research in Toxicology. May 2020.

104. Savdie, J et al. Passive Exposure to Pollutants from a New Generation of Cigarettes in Real Life Scenarios. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. May 2020.

103. Kim, K et al. Gendered factors for heated tobacco product use: Focus group interviews with Korean adults. Tobacco Induced Diseases. May 2020.

102. Slob, W et al. A Method for Comparing the Impact on Carcinogenicity of Tobacco Products: A Case Study on Heated Tobacco Versus Cigarettes. Risk Analysis. May 2020.

101. Kuwabara, Y et al. Comparing Factors Related to Any Conventional Cigarette Smokers, Exclusive New Alternative Product Users, and Non-Users among Japanese Youth: A Nationwide Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. April 2020.

100. Ioakeimidis, N et al. Acute effect of heat-not-burn versus standard cigarette smoking on arterial stiffness and wave reflections in young smokers. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. April 2020.

99. Protano, C et al. Impact of Electronic Alternatives to Tobacco Cigarettes on Indoor Air Particular Matter Levels. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. April 2020.

98. Calabuig, E; Marcilla, A. The effect of the addition of SBA-15 to the slow pyrolysis of tobacco studied by heart-cutting GC/MC. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. April 2020. *

97. Thompson, M E et al. Survey Methods of the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. April 2020.

96. Igarashi, A et al. Heated Tobacco Products Have Reached Younger or More Affluent People in Japan. Journal of Epidemiology. March 2020.

95. Cruz-Jiménez, L et al. Adult Smokers’ Awareness and Interest in Trying Heated Tobacco Products: Perspectives from Mexico, where HTPs and E-Cigarettes are Banned. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. March 2020.

94. Kim, Y H; An, Y J. Development of a standardized new cigarette smoke generating (SNCSG) system for the assessment of chemicals in the smoke of new cigarette types (heat-not-burn (HNB) tobacco and electronic cigarettes (E-Cigs)). Environmental Research. March 2020.

93. Siripongvutikorn, Y et al. Workplace smoke-free policies that allow heated tobacco products and electronic cigarettes use are associated with use of both these products and conventional tobacco smoking: the 2018 JASTIS study. Tobacco Control. March 2020.

92. Phan, L et al. Young Adult Correlates of IQOS Curiosity, Interest, and Likelihood of Use. Tobacco Regulatory Science. March 2020.

91. Sutanto, E et al. Concurrent Daily and Non-Daily Use of Heated Tobacco Products with Combustible Cigarettes: Findings from the 2018 ITC Japan Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. March 2020.

90. Sugiyama, T; Tabuchi T. Use of Multiple Tobacco and Tobacco-Like Products Including Heated Tobacco and E-Cigarettes in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of the 2017 JASTIS Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. March 2020.

89. Obertova, N et al. Acute exposures to e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn products reported to the Czech Toxicological Information Centre over a 7-year period (2012-2018). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. February 2020. *

88. Maloney, S et al. Acute effects of JUUL and IQOS in cigarette smokers. Tobacco Control. February 2020. 

87. Zagoriti, Z et al. Effects of Exposure to Tobacco Cigarette, Electronic Cigarette and Heated Tobacco Product on Adipocyte Survival and Differentiation In Vitro. Toxics. February 2020.

86. Kang, S Y et al. Prevalence and predictors of heated tobacco product use and its relationship with attempts to quit cigarette smoking among Korean adolescents. Tobacco Control. February 2020.

85. Liu, X et al. Electronic cigarettes in Italy: a tool for harm reduction or a gateway to smoking tobacco?. Tobacco Control. February 2020.

84. Lee, C M. International regulatory overview of electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco products. Journal of Korean Medical Association. February 2020. (In Korean).

83. Dunbar, M S et al. Correlates of Awareness and Use of Heated Tobacco Products in a Sample of US Young Adults in 2018-2019. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. February 2020.

82. Frati, G et al. Profiling the Acute Effects of Modified Risk Products: Evidence from the SUR-VAPES (Sapienza University of Rome-Vascular Assessment of Proatherosclerotic Effects of Smoking) Cluster Study. Current Atherosclerosis Reports. February 2020.

81. Sansone, G et al. Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Public Places and Support for Smoke-Free Laws in Japan: Findings from the 2018 ITC Japan Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. February 2020. *

80. Chung-Hall, J et al. Effectiveness of text-only cigarette health warnings in Japan: Findings from the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. February 2020. *

79. Tompkins, C N E et al. Factors that influence smokers’ and ex-smokers’ use of IQOS: a qualitative study of IQOS users and ex-users in the UK. Tobacco Control. January 2020.

78. Jones, J et al. A cross-category puffing topography, mouth level exposure and consumption study among Italian users of tobacco and nicotine products. Scientific Reports. January 2020.

77. Caponnetto, P et al. Non-inferiority trial comparing cigarette consumption, adoption rates, acceptability, tolerability, and tobacco harm reduction potential in smokers switching to Heated Tobacco Products or electronic cigarettes: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications. January 2020.

76. Jun, J. Social Response to the FDA Authorization of Heated Tobacco Products (HTPs). Tobacco Regulatory Science. January 2020.

75. Koutela, N et al. A comprehensive study on the leaching of metals from heated tobacco sticks and cigarettes in water and natural waters. Science of The Total Environment. January 2020.

Independent Publications from 2019

74. Richter, D J. Cardiologists and smoking alternatives: what we should knowEuropean Society of Cardiology. December 2019.

73. Kwon, E et al. Experience and Current Use of Heated Tobacco Products in Korean Military Personnel. Korean Journal of Health Promotion. December 2019. (In Korean).

72. Sutanto, E et al. Prevalence, Use Behaviors, and Preferences among Users of Heated Tobacco Products: Findings from the 2018 ITC Japan SurveyInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. November 2019.

71. Kinjo, A et al. Heated tobacco product smokers in Japan identified by a population-based survey. Journal of Epidemiology. November 2019.

70. Baran, W et al. The influence of waste from electronic cigarettes, conventional cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products on microorganismsJournal of Hazardous Materials. November 2019.

69. Loupa, G et al. The trace of airborne particulate matter from smoking e-cigarette, tobacco heating system, conventional and hand-rolled cigarettes in a residential environmentAir Quality, Atmosphere & Health. October 2019.

68. Ikonomidis, I et al. P450 Effects of IQOS smoking on vascular function , coronary flow reserve, myocardial deformation and myocardial work index during one month of useEuropean Heart Journal. October 2019.

67. Beatrice, F et al. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels in forty resistant to cessation male smokers after six months of full switch to electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) or to a tobacco heating system (THS). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. October 2019.

66. Davis, B et alComparison of cytotoxicity of IQOS aerosols to smoke from Marlboro Red and 3R4F reference cigarettes. Toxicology in Vitro. September 2019.

65. Tobari, H et al. Tobacco cessation training in 6-year pharmacy schools in Japan: a cross-sectional surveyBMJ Open. July 2019.

64. Malela, S et al. Effects of IQOS on macrophage viability and functionERJ Open Research. June 2019.

63. Nistorescu, N et al. Difficulties in measuring the amount of cyanide by various methods and their application in the toxicological risk assessment of classic cigarettes versus IQOS systemActa Medica Marisiensis. June 2019.

62. Kang, H; Cho, S-i. Heated tobacco product use among Korean adolescentsTobacco Control. June 2019.

61. Lee J G L et al. Evolving IQOS packaging designs change perceptions of product appeal, uniqueness, quality and safety: a randomised experiment, 2018, USATobacco Control. June 2019.

60. Farsalinos, K et al. Patterns of use, past smoking status, and biochemically verified current smoking status of heated tobacco product (IQOS) shops customers: preliminary results. Chest. June 2019.

59. Stoklosa, M et al. Effect of IQOS introduction on cigarette sales: evidence of decline and replacement. Tobacco Control. June 2019.

58. Cancelada, L et alHeated Tobacco Products: Volatile Emissions and Their Predicted Impact on Indoor Air QualityEnvironmental Science & Technology. May 2019.

57. Meehan-Atrash, J et al. Free-Base Nicotine Is Nearly Absent in Aerosol from IQOS Heat-Not-Burn Devices, As Determined by 1H NMR SpectroscopyChemical Research in Toxicology. May 2019.

56. Hair, E C et al. Examining perceptions about IQOS heated tobacco product: consumer studies in Japan and SwitzerlandTobacco Control. May 2019.

55. Queloz, S; Etter, JF. An online survey of users of tobacco vaporizers, reasons and modes of utilization, perceived advantages and perceived risks. BMC Public Health. May 2019.

54. Ishizaki, A; Kataoka, H. A sensitive method for the determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream and sidestream smokes of combustion cigarettes and heated tobacco products by online in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta. May 2019.

53. Biondi-Zoccai, G et al. Acute Effects of Heat‐Not‐Burn, Electronic Vaping, and Traditional Tobacco Combustion Cigarettes: The Sapienza University of Rome‐Vascular Assessment of Proatherosclerotic Effects of Smoking (SUR‐VAPES) 2 Randomized TrialJournal of the American Heart Association. March 2019.

52. Davis, B et al. iQOS: evidence of pyrolysis and release of a toxicant from plasticTobacco Control. March 2019. [Our response].

51. Aspera-Werz, R. et al. Comparative analysis of tobacco heating system and combustion of conventional cigarettes on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and human osteoblasts.  Abstracts of the 85th Annual Meeting of the German Society for Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology (DGPT) and the 21th Annual Meeting of the Association of the Clinical Pharmacology Germany (VKliPha). February 2019.

50. Gong, S et al. Puff-by-puff release of main aerosol components from two commercial heat-not-burn tobacco productsTobacco Chemistry. February 2019.

49. Sohal, S S et al. IQOS exposure impairs human airway cell homeostasis: direct comparison with traditional cigarette and e-cigaretteERJ Open Research. February 2019.

48. Schober, W et al. Passive exposure to pollutants from conventional cigarettes and new electronic smoking devices (IQOS, e-cigarette) in passenger carsInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. January 2019.

47. Liu, X et al. Heat-not-burn tobacco products: concerns from the Italian experienceTobacco Control. January 2019.

46. Czoli, C D et al. Awareness and interest in IQOS heated tobacco products among youth in Canada, England and the USATobacco Control. January 2019.

Independent Publications from 2018

45. Tabuchi, T et al. Heat-not-burn tobacco product use in Japan: its prevalence, predictors and perceived symptoms from exposure to secondhand heat-not-burn tobacco aerosolTobacco Control. December 2018.

44. Adriaens, K et alIQOSTM vs. e-Cigarette vs. Tobacco Cigarette: A Direct Comparison of Short-Term Effects after Overnight-AbstinenceInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. December 2018.

43. Salman, R et al. Free-Base and Total Nicotine, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Carbonyl Emissions From IQOS, a Heated Tobacco ProductNicotine & Tobacco Research. November 2018.

42. Lachenmeier, DW et al. Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Products: The Devil in Disguise or a Considerable Risk Reduction? International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research. October 2018.

41. Tabuchi, T et al. Study Profile: The Japan “Society and New Tobacco” Internet Survey (JASTIS): A Longitudinal Internet Cohort Study of Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Products, Electronic Cigarettes, and Conventional Tobacco Products in Japan. Journal of Epidemiology. October 2018.

40. Liber, A C. Heated tobacco products and combusted cigarettes: comparing global prices and taxesTobacco Control. October 2018.

39. Pacitto, A et alCharacterization of airborne particles emitted by an electrically heated tobacco smoking systemEnvironmental Pollution. September 2018.

38. Leigh, N J et al. Cytotoxic effects of heated tobacco products (HTP) on human bronchial epithelial cellsTobacco Control. September 2018. [Our response].

37. Leigh, N J et al. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in heated tobacco product IQOSTobacco Control. September 2018.

36. Nabavizadeh, P et al. Vascular endothelial function is impaired by aerosol from a single IQOS HeatStick to the same extent as by cigarette smokeTobacco Control. September 2018. [Our response].

35. Hitosugi, M et al. Criminal mercury vapor poisoning using heated tobacco productInternational Journal of Legal Medicine. September 2018.

34. Kioi, Y; Tabuchi, T. Electronic, heat-not-burn, and combustible cigarette use among chronic disease patients in Japan: A cross-sectional studyTobacco Induced Diseases. September 2018.

33. Gasparyan, H et al. Accurate measurement of main aerosol constituents from heated tobacco products (HTPs): Implications for a fundamentally different aerosol. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. September 2018.

32. El-Toukhy, S et al. Impact of modified risk tobacco product claims on beliefs of US adults and adolescentsTobacco Control. August 2018.

31. Nyman, A L et al. Awareness and use of heated tobacco products among US adults, 2016–2017Tobacco Control. August 2018.

30. Kim, J et al. Awareness, experience and prevalence of heated tobacco product, IQOS, among young Korean adultsTobacco Control. August 2018.

29. Caponnetto, P et al. Carbon monoxide levels after inhalation from new generation heated tobacco products. Respiratory Research. August 2018.

28. Si, X et al. Aerosol particle size distribution from an electrical heat-not-burn product under ISO and HCI smoking regimesTobacco Chemistry. August 2018.

27. Gale, N et al. Changes in Biomarkers of Exposure on Switching From a Conventional Cigarette to Tobacco Heating Products: A Randomized, Controlled Study in Healthy Japanese Subjects. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. June 2018.

26. Uchiyama, S et al. Simple Determination of Gaseous and Particulate Compounds Generated from Heated Tobacco Products. Chemical Research in Toxicology. June 2018.

25. Farsalinos, K E et al. Nicotine Delivery to the Aerosol of a Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Product: Comparison With a Tobacco Cigarette and E-Cigarettes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. June 2018.

24. Farsalinos, K E et al. Carbonyl emissions from a novel heated tobacco product (IQOS): comparison with an e‐cigarette and a tobacco cigarette. Addiction. June 2018.

23. Mallock, N et al. Levels of selected analytes in the emissions of “heat not burn” tobacco products that are relevant to assess human health risksArchives of Toxicology. May 2018.

22. Brose, L S et al. Awareness and Use of 'Heat-not-burn' Tobacco Products in Great BritainTobacco Regulatory Science. March 2018.

21. Miyashita, L; Grigg, J. Effect of the iQOS electronic cigarette device on susceptibility to S. pneumoniae infectionJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. February 2018.

20. Haswell, L E et al. In vitro RNA-seq-based toxicogenomics assessment shows reduced biological effect of tobacco heating products when compared to cigarette smokeScientific Reports. February 2018.

19. Kawamura, K et al. Health Effects Accompanying the Transition from Cigarettes to Heat-not-burn Tobacco: Nicotine Dependence, Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms, and Changes in Smoking Behaviors. Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. January 2018.

18. Miyazaki, Y; Tabuchi, T. Educational gradients in the use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in JapanPLOS One. January 2018.

17. Li, X et al. Chemical Analysis and Simulated Pyrolysis of Tobacco Heating System 2.2 Compared to Conventional CigarettesNicotine & Tobacco Research. January 2018.

Independent Publications from 2015 to 2017

16. Murphy, J et al. Assessment of tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 9: The placement of a range of next-generation products on an emissions continuum relative to cigarettes via pre-clinical assessment studiesRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. October 2017.

15. Thorne, D et al. Assessment of novel tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 7: Comparative in vitro toxicological evaluationRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. October 2017.

14. Taylor, M et al. Assessment of novel tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 6: A comparative in vitro study using contemporary screening approachesRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. October 2017.

13. Jaunky, T et al. Assessment of tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 5: In vitro dosimetric and cytotoxic assessmentRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. October 2017.

12. Forster, M et al. Assessment of novel tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 3: Comprehensive chemical characterisation of harmful and potentially harmful aerosol emissionsRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. October 2017.

11. Bekki, K et al. Comparison of Chemicals in Mainstream Smoke in Heat-not-burn Tobacco and Combustion CigarettesJournal of UOEH. September 2017.

10. Gale, N et al. A randomised, controlled, two-Centre open-label study in healthy Japanese subjects to evaluate the effect on biomarkers of exposure of switching from a conventional cigarette to a tobacco heating productBMC Public Health. August 2017.

9. Gee, J et alAssessment of tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 8: Study to determine puffing topography, mouth level exposure and consumption among Japanese usersRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. August 2017.

8. Protano, C et al. Second-hand smoke generated by combustion and electronic smoking devices used in real scenarios: Ultrafine particle pollution and age-related dose assessmentEnvironment International. July 2017.

7. Kvasha, E A et alEvaluation of the impact of electronic nicotine delivery systems on the risk of cardiovascular diseases based on endothelial function and its determining factors. health-ua.com. July 2017.

6. Auer, R et al. Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Cigarettes: Smoke by Any Other NameJAMA Internal Medicine. May 2017. [Our response].

5. Ruprecht, A A et al. Environmental pollution and emission factors of electronic cigarettes, heat-not-burn tobacco products, and conventional cigarettesAerosol Science and Technology. March 2017.

4. Veronese, C et al. Cigarette smoke, e-cig vapor and “heat-not-burn”: a comparison between the emissions of toxic compoundTabaccologia. January 2017.

3. Protano, C et al. Second-hand smoke exposure generated by new electronic devices (IQOS® and e-cigs) and traditional cigarettes: submicron particle behaviour in human respiratory systemAnneli Di Igiene. March 2016.

2. Tabuchi, T et al. Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and heat‐not‐burn tobacco products in Japan. Addiction. November 2015.

1. O'Connell, G et al. Heated Tobacco Products Create Side-Stream Emissions: Implications for RegulationJournal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. October 2015.

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