Updated: 9 March 2020

At PMI Science, we welcome and encourage independent research on our products and our methods and results. Over the past few years a growing number of organizations and institutions have initiated studies around our smoke-free alternatives/reduced-risk products and/or the methods/results surrounding them.

Below we've listed those independent studies with original data. For the sake of full transparency, we included all independent studies even if at times, we disagree with the methodology followed and/or the conclusions reached.

Number of publications to-date: 85.

Independent studies

85. Maloney, S et al. Acute effects of JUUL and IQOS in cigarette smokers. Tobacco Control. February 2020.

84. Churchill, C et al. IQOS debut in the USA: Philip Morris International’s heated tobacco device introduced in Atlanta, Georgia. February 2020.

83. Zagoriti, Z et al. Effects of Exposure to Tobacco Cigarette, Electronic Cigarette and Heated Tobacco Product on Adipocyte Survival and Differentiation In Vitro. Toxics. February 2020.

82. Tompkins, C N E et al. Factors that influence smokers’ and ex-smokers’ use of IQOS: a qualitative study of IQOS users and ex-users in the UK. Tobacco Control. January 2020.

81. Jones, J et al. A cross-category puffing topography, mouth level exposure and consumption study among Italian users of tobacco and nicotine products. Scientific Reports. January 2020.

80. Caponnetto, P et al. Non-inferiority trial comparing cigarette consumption, adoption rates, acceptability, tolerability, and tobacco harm reduction potential in smokers switching to Heated Tobacco Products or electronic cigarettes: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications. January 2020.

79. Jun, J. Social Response to the FDA Authorization of Heated Tobacco Products (HTPs). Tobacco Regulatory Science. January 2020.

78. Richter, D J. Cardiologists and smoking alternatives: what we should knowEuropean Society of Cardiology. December 2019.

77. Dagli, E et al. Heated tobacco product marketing: internet platforms undermine regulationsEuropean Respiratory Journal. November 2019.

76. Sutanto, E et al. Prevalence, Use Behaviors, and Preferences among Users of Heated Tobacco Products: Findings from the 2018 ITC Japan SurveyInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. November 2019.

75. Kinjo, A et al. Heated tobacco product smokers in Japan identified by a population-based surveyJournal of Epidemiology. November 2019.

74. Baran, W et al. The influence of waste from electronic cigarettes, conventional cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products on microorganismsJournal of Hazardous Materials. November 2019.

73. Loupa, G et al. The trace of airborne particulate matter from smoking e-cigarette, tobacco heating system, conventional and hand-rolled cigarettes in a residential environmentAir Quality, Atmosphere & Health. October 2019.

72. Ikonomidis, I et al. P450 Effects of IQOS smoking on vascular function , coronary flow reserve, myocardial deformation and myocardial work index during one month of useEuropean Heart Journal. October 2019.

71. Beatrice, F et al. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels in forty resistant to cessation male smokers after six months of full switch to electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) or to a tobacco heating system (THS). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. October 2019.

70. Davis, B et alComparison of cytotoxicity of IQOS aerosols to smoke from Marlboro Red and 3R4F reference cigarettes. Toxicology in Vitro. September 2019.

69. Helová, D et al. Analysis of Presumed IQOS Influencer Marketing on Instagram in the Czech Republic in 2018–2019Adiktologie. July 2019.

68. Tobari, H et al. Tobacco cessation training in 6-year pharmacy schools in Japan: a cross-sectional surveyBMJ Open. July 2019.

67. Malela, S et al. Effects of IQOS on macrophage viability and functionERJ Open Research. June 2019.

66. Nistorescu, N et al. Difficulties in measuring the amount of cyanide by various methods and their application in the toxicological risk assessment of classic cigarettes versus IQOS systemActa Medica Marisiensis. June 2019.

65. Kang, H; Cho, S-i. Heated tobacco product use among Korean adolescentsTobacco Control. June 2019.

64. Lee J G L et al. Evolving IQOS packaging designs change perceptions of product appeal, uniqueness, quality and safety: a randomised experiment, 2018, USATobacco Control. June 2019.

63. Farsalinos, K et al. Patterns of use, past smoking status, and biochemically verified current smoking status of heated tobacco product (IQOS) shops customers: preliminary results. Chest. June 2019.

62. Stoklosa, M et al. Effect of IQOS introduction on cigarette sales: evidence of decline and replacement. Tobacco Control. June 2019.

61. Cancelada, L et alHeated Tobacco Products: Volatile Emissions and Their Predicted Impact on Indoor Air QualityEnvironmental Science & Technology. May 2019.

60. Meehan-Atrash, J et al. Free-Base Nicotine Is Nearly Absent in Aerosol from IQOS Heat-Not-Burn Devices, As Determined by 1H NMR SpectroscopyChemical Research in Toxicology. May 2019.

59. Hair, E C et al. Examining perceptions about IQOS heated tobacco product: consumer studies in Japan and SwitzerlandTobacco Control. May 2019.

58. Queloz, S; Etter, JF. An online survey of users of tobacco vaporizers, reasons and modes of utilization, perceived advantages and perceived risks. BMC Public Health. May 2019.

57. Ishizaki, A; Kataoka, H. A sensitive method for the determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream and sidestream smokes of combustion cigarettes and heated tobacco products by online in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta. May 2019.

56. Biondi-Zoccai, G et alAcute Effects of Heat‐Not‐Burn, Electronic Vaping, and Traditional Tobacco Combustion Cigarettes: The Sapienza University of Rome‐Vascular Assessment of Proatherosclerotic Effects of Smoking (SUR‐VAPES) 2 Randomized TrialJournal of the American Heart Association. March 2019.

55. Davis, B et al. iQOS: evidence of pyrolysis and release of a toxicant from plasticTobacco Control. March 2019. [Our response].

54. Aspera-Werz, R. et alComparative analysis of tobacco heating system and combustion of conventional cigarettes on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and human osteoblasts.  Abstracts of the 85th Annual Meeting of the German Society for Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology (DGPT) and the 21th Annual Meeting of the Association of the Clinical Pharmacology Germany (VKliPha). February 2019.

53. Gong, S et al. Puff-by-puff release of main aerosol components from two commercial heat-not-burn tobacco productsTobacco Chemistry. February 2019.

52. Sohal, S S et al. IQOS exposure impairs human airway cell homeostasis: direct comparison with traditional cigarette and e-cigaretteERJ Open Research. February 2019.

51. Schober, W et alPassive exposure to pollutants from conventional cigarettes and new electronic smoking devices (IQOS, e-cigarette) in passenger carsInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. January 2019.

50. Liu, X et alHeat-not-burn tobacco products: concerns from the Italian experienceTobacco Control. January 2019.

49. Czoli, C D et al. Awareness and interest in IQOS heated tobacco products among youth in Canada, England and the USATobacco Control. January 2019.

48. Tabuchi, T et alHeat-not-burn tobacco product use in Japan: its prevalence, predictors and perceived symptoms from exposure to secondhand heat-not-burn tobacco aerosolTobacco Control. December 2018.

47. Adriaens, K et alIQOSTM vs. e-Cigarette vs. Tobacco Cigarette: A Direct Comparison of Short-Term Effects after Overnight-AbstinenceInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. December 2018.

46. Salman, R et al. Free-Base and Total Nicotine, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Carbonyl Emissions From IQOS, a Heated Tobacco ProductNicotine & Tobacco Research. November 2018.

45. Lachenmeier, DW et al. Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Products: The Devil in Disguise or a Considerable Risk Reduction? International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research. October 2018.

44. Tabuchi, T et al. Study Profile: The Japan “Society and New Tobacco” Internet Survey (JASTIS): A Longitudinal Internet Cohort Study of Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Products, Electronic Cigarettes, and Conventional Tobacco Products in JapanJournal of Epidemiology. October 2018.

43. Liber, A C. Heated tobacco products and combusted cigarettes: comparing global prices and taxesTobacco Control. October 2018.

42. Pacitto, A et alCharacterization of airborne particles emitted by an electrically heated tobacco smoking systemEnvironmental Pollution. September 2018.

41. Leigh, N J et al. Cytotoxic effects of heated tobacco products (HTP) on human bronchial epithelial cellsTobacco Control. September 2018. [Our response].

40. Leigh, N J et al. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in heated tobacco product IQOSTobacco Control. September 2018.

39. Nabavizadeh, P et al. Vascular endothelial function is impaired by aerosol from a single IQOS HeatStick to the same extent as by cigarette smokeTobacco Control. September 2018. [Our response].

38. Hitosugi, M et al. Criminal mercury vapor poisoning using heated tobacco productInternational Journal of Legal Medicine. September 2018.

37.Kioi, Y; Tabuchi, T. Electronic, heat-not-burn, and combustible cigarette use among chronic disease patients in Japan: A cross-sectional studyTobacco Induced Diseases. September 2018.

36. Kreitzberg, D S et al. Heat not burn tobacco promotion on instagramAddictive Behaviors. September 2018.

35. Gasparyan, H et al. Accurate measurement of main aerosol constituents from heated tobacco products (HTPs): Implications for a fundamentally different aerosol. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. September 2018.

34. El-Toukhy, S et al. Impact of modified risk tobacco product claims on beliefs of US adults and adolescentsTobacco Control. August 2018.

33. Nyman, A L et al. Awareness and use of heated tobacco products among US adults, 2016–2017Tobacco Control. August 2018.

32. Kim, J et al. Awareness, experience and prevalence of heated tobacco product, IQOS, among young Korean adultsTobacco Control. August 2018.

31. Caponnetto, P et al. Carbon monoxide levels after inhalation from new generation heated tobacco products. Respiratory Research. August 2018.

30. Si, X et al. Aerosol particle size distribution from an electrical heat-not-burn product under ISO and HCI smoking regimesTobacco Chemistry. August 2018.

29. Gale, N et al. Changes in Biomarkers of Exposure on Switching From a Conventional Cigarette to Tobacco Heating Products: A Randomized, Controlled Study in Healthy Japanese SubjectsNicotine & Tobacco Research. June 2018.

28. Uchiyama, S et alSimple Determination of Gaseous and Particulate Compounds Generated from Heated Tobacco ProductsChemical Research in Toxicology. June 2018.

27. Farsalinos, K E et al. Nicotine Delivery to the Aerosol of a Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Product: Comparison With a Tobacco Cigarette and E-CigarettesNicotine & Tobacco Research. June 2018.

26. Farsalinos, K E et al. Carbonyl emissions from a novel heated tobacco product (IQOS): comparison with an e‐cigarette and a tobacco cigaretteAddiction. June 2018.

25. Staal, Y C M et al. New Tobacco and Tobacco-Related Products: Early Detection of Product Development, Marketing Strategies, and Consumer Interest. JMIR Public Health Surveillance. May 2018.

24. Mallock, N et al. Levels of selected analytes in the emissions of “heat not burn” tobacco products that are relevant to assess human health risksArchives of Toxicology. May 2018.

23. Brose, L S et al. Awareness and Use of 'Heat-not-burn' Tobacco Products in Great BritainTobacco Regulatory Science. March 2018.

22. Miyashita, L; Grigg, J. Effect of the iQOS electronic cigarette device on susceptibility to S. pneumoniae infectionJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. February 2018.

21. Haswell, L E et al. In vitro RNA-seq-based toxicogenomics assessment shows reduced biological effect of tobacco heating products when compared to cigarette smokeScientific Reports. February 2018.

20. Kawamura, K et al. Health Effects Accompanying the Transition from Cigarettes to Heat-not-burn Tobacco: Nicotine Dependence, Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms, and Changes in Smoking BehaviorsNihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. January 2018.

19. Miyazaki, Y; Tabuchi, T. Educational gradients in the use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in JapanPLOS One. January 2018.

18. Li, X et al. Chemical Analysis and Simulated Pyrolysis of Tobacco Heating System 2.2 Compared to Conventional CigarettesNicotine & Tobacco Research. January 2018.

17. Caputi, T L et al. They’re heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco productsPLOS One. October 2017.

16. Murphy, J et al. Assessment of tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 9: The placement of a range of next-generation products on an emissions continuum relative to cigarettes via pre-clinical assessment studiesRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. October 2017.

15. Thorne, D et al. Assessment of novel tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 7: Comparative in vitro toxicological evaluationRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. October 2017.

14. Taylor, M et al. Assessment of novel tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 6: A comparative in vitro study using contemporary screening approachesRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. October 2017.

13. Jaunky, T et al. Assessment of tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 5: In vitro dosimetric and cytotoxic assessmentRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. October 2017.

12. Forster, M et al. Assessment of novel tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 3: Comprehensive chemical characterisation of harmful and potentially harmful aerosol emissionsRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. October 2017.

11. Bekki, K et al. Comparison of Chemicals in Mainstream Smoke in Heat-not-burn Tobacco and Combustion CigarettesJournal of UOEH. September 2017.

10. Gale, N et al. A randomised, controlled, two-Centre open-label study in healthy Japanese subjects to evaluate the effect on biomarkers of exposure of switching from a conventional cigarette to a tobacco heating productBMC Public Health. August 2017.

9. Gee, J et alAssessment of tobacco heating product THP1.0. Part 8: Study to determine puffing topography, mouth level exposure and consumption among Japanese usersRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. August 2017.

8. Protano, C et al. Second-hand smoke generated by combustion and electronic smoking devices used in real scenarios: Ultrafine particle pollution and age-related dose assessmentEnvironment International. July 2017.

7. Kvasha, E A et al. Evaluation of the impact of electronic nicotine delivery systems on the risk of cardiovascular diseases based on endothelial function and its determining factors. health-ua.com. July 2017.

6. Auer, R et al. Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Cigarettes: Smoke by Any Other NameJAMA Internal Medicine. May 2017. [Our response].

5. Ruprecht, A A et al. Environmental pollution and emission factors of electronic cigarettes, heat-not-burn tobacco products, and conventional cigarettesAerosol Science and Technology. March 2017.

4. Veronese, C et al. Cigarette smoke, e-cig vapor and “heat-not-burn”: a comparison between the emissions of toxic compoundTabaccologia. January 2017.

3. Protano, C et al. Second-hand smoke exposure generated by new electronic devices (IQOS® and e-cigs) and traditional cigarettes: submicron particle behaviour in human respiratory systemAnneli Di Igiene. March 2016.

2. Tabuchi, T et al. Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and heat‐not‐burn tobacco products in JapanAddiction. November 2015.

1. O'Connell, G et al. Heated Tobacco Products Create Side-Stream Emissions: Implications for RegulationJournal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. October 2015.

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